人类学习的理论

所属分类:文化人类学人口学  
出版时间:2004-10   出版时间:外语教研   作者:勒弗朗索瓦   页数:385  
Tag标签:心理学  

内容概要

  Updated discussion and evaluation of current theories such as connectionism (neural net modes);Thorough exploration of the development of behavioristic and cognitive theories;New material on evolutionary psychology and biology,Vygotsky,and theories of memory;Helpful,clearly labeled appraisal sections following each major theory;A story that opens each chapter plus objective;ommentary throughout by the Old Man to focus your attention,maintain your interest,and enrich your understanding of each theory.

书籍目录

Read
This
First导读Part
OneThe
First
Words:
Science
and
TheoryChapter
1 Human
Learning:
Science
and
TheoryThis
ChapterObjectivesPsychology
and
LearningLearningPerformance
Versus
LearningTheoryTheories,
Principles,
Laws,
and
BeliefsPurposes
ofTheoriesCharacteristics
of
Good
TheoriesScience
and
the
Development
of
Psychological
TheoriesWhat
Is
Science?Rules
of
the
Scientific
MethodExperimentsThinking
Critically
About
Psychological
ResearchHuman
and
Nonhuman
SubjectsEthics
of
Animal
ResearchHumans
as
SubjectsLearning
Theory:
A
Brief
OverviewRecent
Origins
of
Learning
TheoryPreview
of
the
TextSummaryMostly
Behavioristic
TheoriesChapter
2 Pavlov,
Watson,
and
Guthrie:Early
BehaviorismThis
ChapterObjectivesThe
Beginning
of
Scientific
PsychologyEarly
PsychophysicsIvan
P.
Pavlov
(1849-1936)Classical
ConditioningExplanations
for
Stimulus-Response
AssociationsVariations
in
ContiguityAcquisition,
Extinction,
and
RecoveryPavlovs
Classical
Conditioning:
An
AppraisalJohn
B.
Watson
(1878-1958)BehaviorismA
Classical
Conditioning
Explanation
of
LearningEmotional
LearningTransferWatson
s
EnvironmentalismHigher
LearningApplying
Watsons
PsychologyWatsons
Behaviorism:
An
AppraisalEdwin
Guthrie
(1886-1959)Guthries
Law
of
One-Shot
LearningPracticeMovement
Produced
Stimuli
(MPS)HabitsForgettingReward
and
PunishmentPractical
Applications
of
Guthries
TheoryBreaking
HabitsGuthries
One-Shot
Learning:
An
AppraisalEarly
Behavioristic
Theories:
EvaluationSummaryChapter
3 Thorndike
and
Hull:The
Effects
of
BehaviorThis
ChapterObjectivesEdward
L.
Thorndike
(1874-1949)Animal
lntelligenceContiguity
or
ReinforcementThorndike
s
Pre-19
3
0s
TheorySubsidiary
LawsThorndike
s
Post-1930
TheoryThorndikes
Connectionism:
An
AppraisalClark
L.
Hull
(1884-1952)Hulls
System:
An
OverviewMain
Components
of
Hulrs
SystemGraphic
Summary
of
Hulrs
SystemInput
Variables:
PredictorsIntervening
VariablesOutput
Variables:
The
PredictedFractional
Antedating
Goal
ReactionsHabit-Family
HierarchiesHulls
Formal
Behaviorism:
An
AppraisalSummaryChapter
4 Skinners
Radical
Behaviorism:Operant
ConditioningThis
ChapterObjectivesIs
Skinners
Radical
Behaviorism
Antitheoretical?Overview
of
Skinners
Radical
BehaviorismReinforcementTypes
of
ReinforcementPunishmentIllustrations
of
Reinforcement
and
PunishmentSources
of
ReinforcementSchedules
of
ReinforcementContinuous
or
Intermittent
ReinforcementEffects
of
Reinforcement
SchedulesSchedules
of
Reinforcement
in
Everyday
LifeShapingChainingShaping
and
PeopleFading,
Generalization,
and
DiscriminationIllustration
1:
Pigeons
ReadingIllustration
2:
Quail
LovingRelevance
to
Human
LearningThe
Science
Applied
to
HumansControl
Through
Positive
ContingenciesControl
Through
Negative
ContingenciesImitation
and
Operant
ConditioningSources
of
Reinforcement
in
ImitationThree
Effects
of
ModelsBehavior
ManagementPositive
Reinforcement
and
PunisbmentCounterconditioningExtinctionImitationSkinners
Position:
An
AppraisalContributionsEvaluation
as
a
TheorySome
Philosophical
ObjectionsSummaryChapter
5 Learning
and
Biology:Evolutionary
PsychologyThis
ChapterObjectivesLearning
Taste
AversionsConditioning
Explanations
of
Taste
AversionThe
Phenomenon
of
BlockingEvolutionary
PsychologyAutoshapingInstinctive
DriftBiological
Constraints
in
Evolutionary
PsychologySociobiology:
A
Branch
of
Evolutionary
PsychologyInclusive
Fitness
and
AltruismCriticisms
of
SociobiologyEvolutionary
Psychology:
An
AppraisalBiofeedback:
A
Practical
Application
of
Conditioning
TheoriesOperant
Conditioning
and
Autonomic
ResponsesHow
Biofeedback
WorksThe
Beginning
of
a
TransitionSummaryThe
Beginnings
of
Modern
CognitivismChapter
6 Hebb,
Tolman,
and
the
Gestaltists:Toward
Modern
CognitivismThis
ChapterObjectivesHebbs
Theory:
A
Look
at
Higher
Mental
ProcessesHigher
Mental
ProcessesThe
Neurological
Basis
of
LearningComponents
and
Functioning
of
the
Central
Nervous
SystemPossible
Neurological
Changes
Underlying
LearningHebb
s
Neurophysiological
AssumptionsReactivity
and
PlasticityMediating
Processes:
Hypotheses
and
AssumptionsHebbs
View
of
Learning
and
ThinkingSet
and
AttentionHebb
s
Theory:
An
AppraisalFrom
Behaviorism
to
CognitivismMechanistic
BehaviorismTolmans
Purposive
BehaviorismDo
Rats
Have
Purpose?Four
Summary
PrinciplesTolman
s
Purposive
Behaviorism:
An
AppraisalBasic
Beliefs
of
Gestalt
PsychologyInsight
Versus
Trial
and
ErrorThe
Whole
Is
Greater
Than
the
Sum
of
lts
PartsGestalt
Theory:
The
Laws
of
PerceptionGestalt
Views
of
Learning
and
MemoryBeyond
Perception:
The
Psychological
Field

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心理学


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用户评论 (总计20条)

 
 

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